Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Aspects

Volume 2017; Issue 3
8 Jul 2017

Analyses of Some Technological Characteristics of Six Blends of Four Varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHONX DEMIAS and ANZA of Wheat in Constantine

Research Article

Letlout Hayet1 and Ouldjaoui Ahmed2

1Laboratory of Genetics, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Constantine, Algeria
2Laboratory of Genetics and molecular biology, University of Constantine, Algeria

*Corresponding author:LetloutHayet, Laboratory of Genetics, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Constantine, Algeria. E-mail: letlouth@yahoo.fr.

Received Date: 24 January, 2017; Accepted Date: 14 March, 2017; Published Date: 21 March, 2017

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Abstract

Introduction

References

Suggested Citation

Abstract

 

For geneticists and breeders, the force is a varietal characteristic. For the processing and use industries, the strength of wheat and flour is a technological feature that determines the quality of finished products.However, we try to define some characters related to technology the 8 mixtures of 4 varieties: HD1220, ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA.Flours: M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) are very low with respect to the standard required by the bakery.On the other hands, M1 (ANZA + HD1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD) and M3 (ANZA + ARZ) have good baking strength. We cannot rely only on this test for a proper assessment of the baking strength of the flour as it is influenced by the conditions of plant development. Other tests for assessing these properties are required; the most important is the Alveograph CHOPIN.All meals: M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6 are very rich in gluten so, all these flours are wheat force.The dough: M6 is little resistant and moderately extensible. That of M6 is bread flour while M1 and M5 is bakery. It is further, M2 and M3 are force flour while M4 is a less resistant and low stretch dough.

 

Keywords:HD 1220; ARZ; MAHON X DEMIAS; ANZA; six mixtures: M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6

Introduction

 

The search farmer productive varieties adapted to the area and able to give an important specific weight. The miller is looking for suitable wheat to give a high yield of flour.Therefore, we tried to study the Zeleny index, dry gluten and wet gluten, 6 mixtures configuration softening and the report: M1 (ANZA + HD 1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD), M3 (ANZA + ARZ), M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) of wheat.

 

Material and methods

 

Protein determination by the method of KDJELDAHL (g / 100 g M.S.)

 

Calculating the content of proteins is obtained by multiplying the nitrogen content by 6.25 which is the nitrogen conversion factor protein. P (%) = N (%) x 6.25.

 

Zeleny test or sedimentation index (mg)

 

The sedimentation volume formed is expressed in milligrams per reading on the cylinder (J.L. KIGGER and J.C. KIGGER, 1967).

 

Less than 18 Between 18 and 28 Between 28 and 38 Greater than 38 
Insufficient Happy baking strength Very good baking strength cover wheat

Determination of gluten (%)

 

According to LE COQ (1965), the dry gluten content is 8 to 12% for soft wheat flours.

Flour called exotic wheat hard wheat has a dry gluten content of between 12-15% (CALVEL 1984).                    According DELACHAUX (1983), the standard for the wet gluten content is 27.85%.

 

Softening (mm)

 

According KRANZ and Kozmin (1966), the softening is as follows:

 

Softening less than 2 mm Gluten tenacious, very difficult to farm development during fermentation
Softening of 2 to 4 mm Gluten good quality
Softening of 4 to 8 mm Average quality gluten
Softening 8-13 mm Gluten poor

 

Configuration Report: P / L

 

It gives an indication between tenacity and extensibility of the dough (BAR, 1995).

The use of the flour according to the configuration report: P/L (CHRISTIAN, 2000) is:

 

Use to Value P / L
Flour for making bread 0.50 à 0.80
Shortly paste Moderately Resistant and Extensible 0.50
Very Resistant and paste Moderately Extensible 1.50

 

Swell Index: G (cm3)

 

Use to value P / L

Flour for making bread 0.50 0.80

Shortly paste Moderately Resistant and Extensible 0.50

Very Resistant and paste Moderately Extensible 1.50

 

Swelling index: G (cm3)

 

Swelling is the same magnitude as the length of the curve L and connected according BAR (1995) by: G = √ 2.22 L.Good swelling 20-30, 33Ø Pate Ameliorative.

 

Results and DiscussionProteins rate (%)

 

The protein level is an important criterion of quality. Indeed, the quantity and quality of protein occupies the largest share in the bread making (MAUZE 1972).

All meals: M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6 are in the recommended standards

 

Zeleny test or sedimentation index (mg)

 

Flours: M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) are very low with respect to the standard required by the bakery.

By cons, M1 (ANZA + HD1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD) and M3 (ANZA + ARZ) have good baking strength.

We cannot rely only on this test for a proper assessment of the baking strength of the flour as it is influenced by the conditions of plant development.

Other tests for assessing these properties are required; the most important is the Alveograph CHOPIN.

 

Dry gluten (%)

 

All meals: M1 (ANZA + HD 1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD), M3 (ANZA + ARZ), M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) are very rich in gluten. All these flours are wheat force.

 

Wet gluten (%)

 

All meals: M1 (ANZA + HD 1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD), M3 (ANZA + ARZ), M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) are very rich in gluten. All these flours are wheat force.

 

The high content of flour could be due to a high water absorption because gluten is more good more it absorbs water and is a great difference between the weight of wet and dry gluten.

 

Softening

 

Flours: M1 (ANZA + HD 1220) is a good quality gluten.

Flour: M4 (MXD + HD 1220) has a tenacious gluten, firm and very difficult development during fermentation.

Flours: M2 (ANZA + MXD), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) have average quality glutens. Flour: M3 (ANZA + ARZ) has a poor-quality gluten (SOUFI et al, 2009.).

 

Configuration Report or P / L

 

The dough: M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) is very resistant and moderately extensible. M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) is a bread flour while M1 (ANZA + HD 1220) and M5 (MXD + ARZ) are bakery. M2 (ANZA + MXD) and M3 (ANZA + ARZ) are force flour while M4 (MXD + HD 1220) is a less resistant and low stretch dough.

 

Swelling index or G

 

Pasta: M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) has a good swelling. While the pasta: M1 (ANZA + HD 1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD) and M3 (ANZA + ARZ) have a small swelling.

 

Conclusion

 

The work we have undertaken is to study some technological features eight blends M1 (ANZA + HD1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD), M3 (ANZA + ARZ), M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) in four varieties: HD 1220, ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA.

Analysis of the test results show that:All meals: M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6 are in the standards recommended for protein levels.

Flours: M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) are very low with respect to the standard required by the bakery.

By cons, M1 (ANZA + HD1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD) and M3 (ANZA + ARZ) have good baking strength.We cannot rely only on this test for a proper assessment of the baking strength of the flour as it is influenced by the conditions of plant development.

All meals: M1 (ANZA + HD 1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD), M3 (ANZA + ARZ), M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) are very rich in gluten. All these flours are wheat force.

Pasta: M4 (MXD + HD 1220), M5 (MXD + ARZ) and M6 (ARZ + HD 1220) has a good swelling. While the pasta: M1 (ANZA + HD 1220), M2 (ANZA + MXD) and M3 (ANZA + ARZ) have a small swelling.

 

Other tests performed on four varieties of which would be beneficial to establish their genetic variability.

 

 

References

 

  1. Bar C (1995) Contrôle de la qualité des céréales et protéagineux. Edition : I.T.C.F. Paris. P 253.
  2. CalvelR (1984) La boulangerie moderne. 2ème édition. Paris. P 459.
  3. Delachaux N (1983). Alimentation boulangère- pâtissière. Edition : SPES. P 7-
  4. Kigger J.L and Kigger J.C (1967) Techniques modernes de la biscuiterie, boulangeries industrielle et artisanale et les produits de régime. Ed: DUNOD. Paris. France. P 676.
  5. Kozmin and Kranz(1966). Biochemistry of the damage to grain by wheat bug. Cereal chemestry n°21.
  6. Lecoq R (1965) Manuel d’analysealimentaire et d’expertiseusuelle. Edition : Technique et documentation. Paris. P 315- 316.
  7. Soufi A (2009) Contribution à l’étude des caractéristiquesphysico-chimiques et technologiques de quatrevariétés : HD 1220, ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS et ANZA du blétendre. Mémoired’Ingénieur d’état. I.N.A.T.A.A. Université de Constantine 1. Algérie. P 86.
Suggested Citation

 

Citation: Hayet L and Ahmed O (2017) Analyses of Some Technological Characteristics of Six Blends of Four Varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHONX DEMIAS and ANZA of Wheat in Constantine. J AgrAgri Aspect 2017: JAAA-113.

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