Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Aspects

Volume 2017; Issue 3
10 Jul 2017

Cross-Testing Between Four Varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA OF Constantine Wheatd

Research Article

Letlout Hayet1 and Ouldjaoui Ahmed2

1Laboratory of Genetics, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Constantine, Algeria
2Laboratory of Genetics and molecular biology, University of Constantine, Algeria

*Corresponding author:LetloutHayet, Laboratory of Genetics, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Constantine, Algeria. E-mail: letlouth@yahoo.fr.

Received Date: 24 January, 2017; Accepted Date: 10 March, 2017; Published Date: 17 March, 2017

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Abstract

Introduction

References

Suggested Citation

Abstract

 

Inter-varietal crosses were made between 4 varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of BREAD wheat with 2 repetitions while following their cycle of development.The principals components analysis: A.C.P. variety : HD 1220 (HIDHAB) shows that the number of grains per square meter (37.15%) contributed the most to the formation of the axis F1 while the number of spike per square meter (51.90%) as the most axis F2. That of the ARZ variety shows that the number of grains per square meter (43.41%) contributed the most to the formation of the F1 axis otherwise the number of grains per spike  shape as the axis F2 (55.86%).Measuring the pH of our soil is estimated at 7.47. It is slightly alkaline and this is a heavy and highly calcareous is soil. It is also a mineral soil because the percentage of the organic material is 1.81.

 

Keywords: HD 1220; ARZ; MAHON X DEMIAS; ANZA; intra- varietal crosses; soil analysis.

Introduction

 

The contribution of cereals for ten thousand years to the nourishment of man has been crucial and has contributed greatly to the development of civilizations.

Around one billion tons of cereals are produced annually worldwide. Wheat and rice are the most important equally (SELSET, 1991).

Among the cereals, wheat, and especially soft wheat, is by far the most important food in the human diet, either in the form of bread or in the form of biscuits or rusks (BOUDREAU, 1992).

However, four varieties of soft wheat: ARZ, ANZA, HD1220 (HIDHAB) were the subject of our study by successive inter-varietal crosses with analyzes of the field of experimentation.

 

Materials and Methods

 

The sowing plan consists of our 4 plots: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of soft wheat arranged in different ways each year to avoid the effect of borders with 2 blocks while following their cycle Development.

 

The castration is followed by pollination. The ears of the male parent will be introduced into the cut pouch which contains the female parent by gently rubbing on the ovary.

 

A.C.P.: Overall Principal Component Analysis on our data.

 

Hydrogen potential, limestone dosage and the percentage of organic matter in the soil are also part of our analysis.

 

Results and Discussions

 

Breeding patterns

During 12 years of testing, it was possible to carry out all inter-varietal crosses knowing that they were difficult to carry out.

The crosses are said to be: stranded if the sachets are empty.

The crosses are said to be successful if the bags have ears of corn.It would be desirable to analyze the offspring: from F1 to F12 in order to establish their genetic variability.

The causes of obtaining the sachets of empty crossovers are:

Pollination poorly done (Auto pollination).

Castration badly done (Residues of some stamens).

Unfavorable weather conditions (Sun, Rain, Wind …).

 

 

Principal Component Analysis : A.C.P. GLOBAL

A.C.P: General Principal Component Analysis informs us about the dispersion of our variables and individuals according to the axes: 1 and 2.

Therefore, the variability for the F1 axis is 51.39% and it is 26.36% for the F2 axis. The cumulative percentage of variables is 77.75% on the F1 and F2 axes.

The number of grains per square meter (48.18%) contributes the most to the formation of the F1 axis while the height of the plant (66.44%) forms the most axis F2.

The graph of the observations comprises 80 individuals: from 1 to 20 represent the variety HD 1220, from 21 to 40 those of the ARZ variety, from 41 to 60 those of the MAHON X DEMIAS variety and from 61 to 80 of those of the ANZA variety.

The graph of the observations shows that each variety has certain similarities of plants with respect to variables.

 

HD 1220.          ARZMX.DANZA.HT, E/M2, G/M2 and G/E.

 

GLOBAL GRAPH OF VARIABLES AND OBSERVATIONS

 

Experimental soil analysis

 

The measurement of the potential Hydrogen: pH of a soil makes it possible to define its state of acidity or of alkalinity (or acido-basic status). In general, the pH is measured on a scale of 1 to 14.

An agricultural soil has a pH of between 4 and 9 with exceptions and varies according to the nature of the soil.

The pH of our test was estimated to be 7.47; It is therefore weakly alkaline and it is also a heavy soil because its pH is between 6.80 to 7.50.

Our soil has a percentage of limestone estimated at 37%. It is a strongly calcareous soil because it is between 25 and 50%.

Soils are called mineral soils when the percentage of organic matter is less than 30.

 

• Organic matter covers very different fractions = fresh organic matter (roots, straw, green fertilizers buried …), intermediate (stabilizing) or stable = humus (humic substances, amino acids, microbial biomass …).

• Humus + Clay = Argilo-Humic Complex (C.A.H.).

• Conditioning soil structure and soil nutrient power (ANONYMOUS, 2014).The soil of our experiment is mineral because its percentage of organic matter is estimated at 1.81.

 

Conclusion

 

The essential facts which commit some element of answer to the problem of our varieties: HD 1220, ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA of soft wheat:

It was possible to carry out all inter-varietal crosses knowing that they were difficult to carry out.

It would be desirable to analyze the offspring: from F1 to F2 in order to establish their genetic variability.

A.C.P.: Overall Principal Component Analysis shows that the variability for the F1 axis is 51.39% and it is 26.36% for the F2 axis. The cumulative percentage of variables is 77.75% on the F1 and F2 axes.

The number of grains per square meter (48.18%) contributes the most to the formation of the F1 axis while the height of the plant (66.44%) forms the most axis F2.

The graph of the observations shows that each variety has certain

Similarities of plants with respect to variables.

Our test soil is heavy and it is weakly alkaline. It is also strongly limestone and mineral.

References

1.       Anonymous (2014). Soil composition.

2.       Boudreau A (1992). Wheat, milling. Edition: the presses of LAVAL Canada. P 53

3.       Selset A (1991). Technology of cereals and derived products. Mostaganem Institute of Agricultural Technology. P 147.

Suggested Citation

 

Citation: Hayet L and Ahmed O (2017) Cross-Testing Between Four Varieties: HD 1220 (HIDHAB), ARZ, MAHON X DEMIAS and ANZA OF Constantine Wheat. J AgrAgri Aspect 2017: JAAA-114.

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