The 1991 Gulf War resulted in widespread oil spill in Kuwait. Large areas of low-lying desert lands were covered by a layer of spilled oil to form oil lakes. Part of the standing oil migrated downwards to contaminate the underlying soil layer to a varying depth, depending on soil permeability. The level of soil contamination varies both horizontally and vertically. This requires multiple management and remediation strategies to be developed and implemented in an integrated way in order to achieve acceptable contaminated land clean-up goals. For the contamination hotspots that still contain hydrocarbon species of high toxicity, active treatment methods need to be adopted to eliminate the source of high environmental risk. The cost-effectiveness of bioremediation may be limited due to generally harsh desert climate conditions (dry, high temperature and salinity), which disfavour the growth of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes. It seems that advanced oxidation treatment is among the most appropriate methods for remediation of the oil-contaminated soils in the area of concern. For the majority of contaminated soils that contain predominantly long-chain hydrocarbons that are of low mobility and water solubility, it is most unlikely that contamination of groundwater by the soil-borne petroleum hydrocarbons will take place under the current climatic conditions. However, human exposure to potentially toxic hydrocarbons through ingestion and inhalation is still likely. To minimize human exposure risk, any activities causing large-scale soil disturbance should be avoided. A simple, lowcost -capping method should be sufficient for satisfactorily preventing human exposure to potentially toxic hydrocarbons from occurring. This could also allow long-term carbon storage in the capped contaminated soils, contributing to climate change mitigation.
Berrouk was awarded a PhD degree from The University of Manchester (UK) in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and turbulence modeling. He holds several master degrees which bear witness to his wide academic training. During his academic career, Dr Berrouk published two books, three book chapters and more than 90 papers on his ongoing research work in peer-reviewed international journals and conference proceedings. Dr Berrouk is a recipient of many awards from the local government and oil and gas industry. Dr Abdallah is member of the technical committee of ADIPEC (the largest oil and gas exhibition and conference) since 2013