Article / Research Article

"Effect of Yogic Practices on Attitude and Job Satisfaction Among Women at Menopause Stage"

K.Shabina Yasmin*, R.Elangovan 

Department of Yoga, Tamil Nadu Physical Education and Sports University, Melakottaiyur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India 

*Corresponding author:K. Shabina Yasmin, Department of Yoga, Tamil Nadu Physical Education and Sports University, Melakottaiyur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Tel: +919500109189; Email: shabinayasmink@gmail.com  

Received Date: 13November, 2017; Accepted Date: 30November, 2017; Published Date: 07December, 2017

1.      Abstract 

The purpose of the random group experimental study was to find out the effect of Yogicpractices onAttitude and Job Satisfaction among women at Menopause stage. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference due toYogic practiceson Attitude and Job Satisfactionamong women at Menopause stage than the control group. For the purpose of the study Random group experimental design was used. Simple random sampling design was followed to select the subjects.60 women came forward and 40 women were screened and found premenopausal symptoms by applying medical examination and 30 premenopausal women were selected at random finally for the study. 30 Menopausal women were selected randomly from Chennai, between the age group of 40 to 55 years and they were divided into twogroups A and B having 15 subjects in each group.Pretest was taken for these two Groups (AandB) on the selected dependent variables before the start of the training program. Group A was given Yogic practices and Group C (Control Group) didn’t receive any specific treatment. After the experimental period of 8 weeks, the two Groups (A and B) were retested again on the same selected dependent variables. The selected Psychological variables such as Attitude and Job Satisfaction were measured through Questioners. Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) was used to find out the significant difference between experimental groups and the control group. The test of significance was fixed at 0.05 level of confidence. It was concluded that due to Yogic PracticesAttitude and Job Satisfaction was significantly improved the control group amongwomen at Menopause stage. Hence, the hypothesis was accepted at 0.05 level of confidence. 

2.      Keywords:Attitude; Job satisfaction; Menopause;Yogic practices

1.      Introduction

Women and men share many similar health problems, but women also have their own health issues, which deserve special consideration. Women's lives have changed over the centuries. Menopause is an important event in the life of a woman when reproductive capacity ceases. Women at Menopause stage facing many challenges and obstacles in life. While some menopausal women experience slight discomfort, majority display severe and multiple symptoms. Frequently reported symptoms fall into numerous categories, including Psychological turbulences such as hot flushes, increase in Job Satisfaction, weight gain, Osteoporosis, Migraine, Urinary incontinence, back pain, joint pain, muscle pain, breast atrophy, decreased elasticity ofskin, and many other impacts that may weaken their personal, social connections and reduce the overall quality of life[1].Yoga helps promote a balanced development of physical, mental and spiritual being. Yoga reduces the effect certain Psychological fluctuations of menopausal women by balancing the body, mind and soul, and helps to minimize the impact of symptoms that can be unsettling during this time [2]. 

The results of many studies tend to indicate that there are benefits in the use of Yogic practices in the alleviation of Menopausal symptoms, particularly psychological symptoms such as stress, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, Job satisfaction etc.[3,4].

1.1.  Purpose ofthe study 

The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Yogic practices onAttitude and Job Satisfaction among women at Menopause stage.

1.2.  Hypothesis 

It was hypothesized that there was a significant difference due to Yogic practices onAttitude and Job Satisfaction among women at menopause stage than the control group. 

1.3.  Review ofrelated literature 

Chattha L etal., (2008)studied effect of yoga on the climacteric symptoms, perceived stress, and personality in perimenopausal women. One hundred twenty participants (ages 40-55 y) were randomly divided into two study arms, i.e., yoga and control. The yoga group practiced an integrated approach to yoga therapy and avartandhyan (cyclic meditation), whereas the control group practiced a set of simple physical exercises under supervision of trained teachers for 8 weeks. The assessments were made by Greene Climacteric Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Eysenck's Personality Inventory before and after the intervention. Of the three factors of the Greene Climacteric Scale, the Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference between groups (P < 0.05) in the vasomotor symptoms, a marginally significant difference (P = 0.06) in psychological factors but not in the somatic component. Effect sizes were higher in the yoga group for all factors. There was a significantly greater degree of decrease in Perceived Stress Scale scores (P < 0.001, independent samples t test) in the yoga group compared with controls (between-group analysis) with a higher effect size in the yoga group (1.10) than the control (0.27). On the Eysenck's Personality Inventory, the decrease in neuroticism was greater (P < 0.05) in the yoga group (effect size = 0.43) than the control group (effect size = 0.21) with no change in extroversion in either the yoga or control group. Eight weeks of an integrated approach to yoga therapy decreases climacteric symptoms, perceived stress, and neuroticism in perimenopausal women better than physical exercise. 

Li, Sixuan MPH etal., (2016) explored the relationship between menopause status and attitude toward menopause, and also its relationship with quality of life (QoL) of Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40 to 59 years were recruited through computer-generated random telephone dialing. Information was obtained through telephone interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Women were classified into 3 groups: premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Menopause Belief Scale and Utian Quality of Life Scale (QoL) were used to measure respondents’ attitude toward menopause and their QoL. Information on social, health, and lifestyle factors was also collected. The mean age of the participants was 49.4 ± 5.2 years. Respondents generally had a positive attitude toward menopause. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women were noted to have significantly higher attitude score toward menopause. No significant differences in QoL score were noted among women of the 3 menopause statuses. Stepwise regression analysis showed that women with more positive attitude toward menopause tended to have higher QoL score. Furthermore, better self-reported health status, doing physical activities, higher education level, being married and non-smoking status were associated with better QoL. 

2.      Methodology 

For thePurpose of the study Random group experimental design was used. Simple random sampling design was followed to select the subjects. 60 women came forward and 40 women were screened and found premenopausal symptoms by applying medical examination and 30 premenopausal women were selected at random finally for the study. 30 Menopause women were selected randomly from Chennai, between the age group of 40 to 55 years and they were divided into two groups A and B having 15 subjects in each group.Pretest was taken for these two Groups (A and B) on the selected dependent variables before the start of the training program.Group A was undergone Yogic practices for daily 1 hour for 5 days per week for a total period of 8 weeks.These Yoga Practices include Loosening the Joints, Surya Namaskar, Asanas, Pranayama, Meditation and Relaxation techniques.Provided Asanas: Padahastasana, Halasana, Sarvangasana, Matschiasana, Bhujanjasana, Salabasana, Ustasana, Navasana, Arthamatsyasana, Paschimottanasana, Baddhakonasana and Savasana.Provided Pranayama: Surya Bhedana, Nadisodana and Ujjayi[2,5].Group C (Control Group) was permitted to undergo their normal lifestyle during the course of experiment. After the experimental period of 8 weeks, the two Groups (A and B) were retested again on the same selected dependent variables.Selected Psychological variables -Attitude was measured using Measured using Attitude Questionnaire developed by Cite HR Community Insights and Job Satisfaction was measured through Measured using Job Satisfaction Questionnaire developed by Bubey, B.L., Uppal.K.K and Verma. S.K.Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA) was used to find out the significant difference between experimental group and the control group. The test of significance was fixed at 0.05 level of confidence. 

3.      Results and Discussions 

The data pertaining to the variables collected from the two groups before and after the training period were statistically analyzed by using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to determine the significant difference and tested at 0.05 level of confidence. 

The obtained F - ratio value for Attitude and Job Satisfaction were greater than the table value,it indicates that there was a significant improvement on Attitude and Job Satisfaction among the post-test and adjusted post-test means of the Yoga practices group than the Control Group. 

These were shown in the Table 1 and 2. 

The results of the study on the selected variables showed that for the Group A and B, Attitude and Job Satisfaction were significantly improved due to the influences of Yogic practices. Hence, the hypothesis was accepted at 0.05 level of confidence. 

The pre- test, post- test and the adjusted post-test mean values of Yoga Groupand Control Group on Attitude and Job Satisfaction were graphically presented in Figure 1& Figure 2. 

4.      Conclusion 

It was concluded that due to the influences of Yogic PracticesAttitude and Job Satisfaction were significantly improved than control group among women at Menopause stage.


Figure 1: Bar diagram showing ordered adjusted mean post-test of the experimental groups & control group for attitude (scores in marks).




Figure 2: Bar diagram showing ordered adjusted mean post-test of the experimental groups and control group for job satisfaction - lesser the scores more job satisfaction (scores in marks).


 

Test

 

Group-A Yoga

Group-B Control

Source of Variation

Degrees of Freedom

Sum of Squares

Mean Sum of Squares

F-Ratio

Pre

19.93

19.47

Between

1

1.63

1.63

0.12

With in

28

366.67

13.1

Post

29.73

18.93

Between

1

874.8

874.8

53.26*

With in

28

459.87

16.42

Adjusted Post

29.63

19.04

Between

1

837.74

837.74

58.41*

With in

27

387.23

14.34

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence (Table F ratio at 0.05 level of confidence for df 1 and 28 = 4.2, 1 and 27 = 4.21).

Table 1:Analysis of co-variance of the means of experimental groups and the control group in attitude (scores in marks).

 

 

Test

 

Group-A Yoga

Group-B Control

Source of Variation

Degrees of Freedom

Sum of Squares

Mean Sum of Squares

F-Ratio

Pre

51.73

51

Between

1

4.03

4.03

0.02

With in

28

4518.93

161.39

Post

30.07

50.87

Between

1

3244.8

3244.8

51.78*

With in

28

1754.67

62.67

Adjusted Post

30.02

50.91

Between

1

3268.68

3268.68

52.13*

With in

27

1692.91

62.7

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence (Table F ratio at 0.05 level of confidence for df 1 and 28 = 4.2, 1 and 27 = 4.21).

Table 2:Analysis of co-variance of the means of experimental groups and the control group in job satisfaction- lesser the scores more job satisfaction (scores in marks).

1.       Wayne Blocker (2015) Womens Health. Menopause: 41529.

2.       Geeta S. Iyengar (1998) Yoga A Gem for Women. Allied Publishers 9: 57.

3.       Chattha R, Raghuram N, Venkatram P, Hongasandra NR (2008) Treating the climacteric symptoms in Indian women with an integrated approach to yoga therapy: a randomized control study. Menopause 15: 862-870.

4.       Li S1, Ho SC, Sham A (2016) Relationship between menopause status, attitude toward menopause, and quality of life in Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong, Menopause 23: 67-73.

5.       lyengar BKS (2004) Light on Yoga. Haper Collins Publishers 488. 

Citation:Yasmin KS, Elangovan R (2017) Effect of Yogic Practices on Attitude and Job Satisfaction Among Women at Menopause Stage. Yoga Phys TherRehabil: YPTR-141. DOI: 10.29011/YPTR-141. 000041