Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Development (ISSN: 2577-1493)

Article / Review Article

"NOx Elimination and Drainage NP Elimination Should Be Stopped for the Production of Fish and for the Protection of Global Warming"

Shoichiro Ozaki*

The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research 2-1 Hirosawa, Japan

*Corresponding author: Shoichiro Ozaki, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research 2-1 Hirosawa, Wakoshi Saitama 351-0198, Japan. Tel/Fax: +81 0467670991: Email:ozaki-0991@jcom.zaq.ne.jp

Received Date: 18 September, 2017; Accepted Date: 23 September, 2017; Published Date: 3 October, 2017 

1.      Abstract

NOx is promoting plankton growth and fish production. Much NOx is produced when fossil is burned. Many governments set up the law to eliminate NOx by the reason NOx is pollution gas and not good for health. And also Drainage NP are eliminated. Some other many governments are welcoming NOx as fertilizer for plant and encouraged the use of NOx and DrainageNP for plankton growth and getting many fish.

The balance of materials which concerned in burning of fossil and CO2 assimilation are summarized. It was found that NOx produced by burning and drainage NP are so much and effective use of NOx and drainage NP is a key to control of climate of earth and production of grain and fish production. NOx elimination and Drainage NP elimination should be stopped for the production of grain and fish and for the protection of global warming.

2.      Keywords: Carbon dioxide, Fish production CO2 assimilation, Global warming, NOx

1.      Introduction

The earth is warmed by the fossil fuel burning releasing CO2 and heat. Theplant is growing by CO2 assimilation absorbing CO2 producing carbohydrate and O2. If we can compensate the generation of CO2 and heart with the absorption of CO2 and heart by CO2 assimilation, global warming can be protected [1-12].

Plankton photosynthesis are studied by many investigators [13-38]. These studies indicate that CO2 assimilation is playing very important role for the regulation of climate. Supply of nutrients are important factor for the promotionof CO2 assimilation. When fossil fuel burned, much NOx is produced. Toomuch burning and too much CO2 is produced and,CO2 concentration is increasing. Protection of global warming is now one of biggest concern of the world. For the protection of global warming, CO2 must be diminished. Promotion of CO2 assimilation is most effective way. To promote CO2 assimilation, Increase of nutrient N and P are most effective way. NOx is a major nitrogen source for the plant to grow. But NOx is hated as pollution gas and many governments like Japan, United State, Germany, England be fixed well. As the result, CO2 concentration increasing. And global warming is observed.

On the contrary, many countries like China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam do not eliminate NOx and they are using NOx as fertilizer. Then much plankton is produced and much CO2 are fixed and much fish is produced. I wish to describe these facts in detail.

2.      Material Balance of CO2Assimilation Related Compounds

Amount of CO2, NOx, plankton, Grain, Fish and Grass Tree and increase of CO2 in the world are shown in (Table 1).

CO2 300 Billion tone CO2 was produced in the world in 2016 by the burning of 140 billiontone fossil.

NOx12 billion tone NOx is produced in the process of burning.

Planktonfrom 300 billion tone CO2, 40 billion tone plankton, is estimated to be producedGrainfrom 300 million tone, 33 million tone grain are producedGrass,Treefrom 300 million tone CO2, 226 billion tone grass and tree are estimate to beproduced.Fishfrom 40 billion tone plankton, 2 billion tone fish are produced.1/3 tone fossil give 1 tone CO21tone CO2 produce 1/25 tone NOx as by product in the burning process,In the CO2 assimilation process, 1 tone CO2 react with 18/44 tone H20 using 1/25tone NOxCO2, Grain and Fish production are obtained from statistic.Plankton weight is estimated from the fact that sardine eat 10 times plankton of hisweight. And Tuna (Maguro) eat 10 times sardine of his weight. Then we estimated thatfish eat 20 times plankton of his weight. In average.Grass Tree weight is obtained from CO2 weight minus plankton and Grain weight.

3.      CO2, NOx and Heat Balance in the World

Fossil fuel 1.4x1010 tone was burned at whole world in 2015 and about 4.4x 1010 tone CO2 and 7.4 x1015 kcal were produced and 2.5x 109tone NOx is produced. If we use this 2.5x 109tone NOx for CO2 assimilation, we can fix CO2 50x109 tone (25x2.5 x 109). The amount of NOxproduced is around 2.5x 109 tone in whole world. To eliminate NOx 2.5x 109tone, equimolar ammonia 11.3 billion ton is used. To make ammonia11.3 billion tone, 2 billion tone hydrogen gasie used. To make 2 billion tone hydrogen, butane 6.4 billion tone is used. As the result,17.6 billion tone CO2 is released. If NOx elimination is stopped, 17.6 billion tone CO2 release can be stopped. And 17.6x 25=440billion tone CO2 can be fixed.

4.      CO2, NOx and Heat Balance in Japan

Fossil fuel 1.4x1010 tone was burned at Japan in 2015 and about 4.4x 1010 tone CO2 and 7.4 x1013kcal were produced and 2 x 106 tone NOx is produced.

In Japan, 2.8x 108 hector wood is present. 13.7 tone CO2 is fixed at 1 hector wood in one year. 2.8x108x13.7=3.8x109 tone CO2 can be fixed at wood. In Japan, 4.5x107 hector cultivated land is present. 14.7 tone CO2 is fixed at 1 hector in one year. 4.5x107 x 14.7 = 6,3x 108 tone CO2 can be fixed in one year at cultivated land. Therefore 3.8x109+6,3x 108=4.4 x109 tone CO2 is fixed at land. This is far from production of CO2.Therefore we must promote CO2 assimilation by the supply of nutrient N, NOx at sea.

5.      Eective use of NOx and Drainage NP are Essential for Protection of Global Warming and Fish Production

Fish production along with CO2emission, NOx emission and CO2 fixed by plankton CO2 assimilation of the world are shown at (Table 2).

World fish production in 2016 increased to 200 million tone, about double of 93 million tone in 1997 and 2002. China 79.38 million tone,Indonesia22.21,India10.11, Vietnam 6.21 increasing fish production very much.

China,Indonesia,India, Vietnam do not eliminate NOx and do not do drainage treatment They use NOx and excreta as it is for production of plankton and fish.Therefore, fish production increased remarkably at the district where no N,P supply by counter current of nutrient rich deep sea water with nutrient poor shallow sea water.

China produced fish 16.77 million tone fish in 2002. And 79.38 million tone fish in 2016. This is huge Increase. China produced 4 billion tone NOx. This NOx is released to air and dissolved in rain and give enough nutrient nitrogen to sea, lake and river to grow 4.4 billion tone plankton and 79.38 million tone fish.This 4 billion tone NOx became enough fertilizer for the production of 4.4 billion tone grain. And also this 4 billion tone NOx contributed for the growth of grass and tree. These three CO2 assimilation action, plankton formation, grain production and grass tree growth, fixed 100 billion tone CO2 and are contributing for the protection of global warming.

Japan produced 16 million tone fish, top in the world in 1960 But fish production decreased to 4.64 million tone 7th place in 2016. This is huge decrease. Japan is eliminating 3 million tone N and P since 1980. Therefore, NP concentration of sea decreased remarkably. Plankton cannot grow at this low concentration. Therefore, fish decreased. 12 million tone fish was not produced in recent years. Especially, Pacific Saury(sanma)decreased, 2006 3x105 t, 2014 1.5x105t, Sardin (Iwashi) 1988 4.81 million tone 2014 0.5million tone These 2 fishs eat plankton.Tuna(maguro)which eat Pacific Saury and Sardin decreased1961 0.16 million tone 2014 0.017 million tone.

Bonit(Katsuo),Bream(Tai),Seaeel(Anago)decreased,Salmon(Sake),Mackerel(Saba),Octopus(Tako),Squid(Ika), Eel(Unagi), Sea eel(Anago), 0.16 million tone in 1969 to 0.017 million tone in 2014. Asari 0.1 million tone in 1980 to0.001 million tone in 2016. Sea weed (Nori) 1 billion sheet to 0.01 billion sheet.

Fish production is proportional to population, amount of excreta. Shrimp production by excreta is popular in Vietnam, India and Indonesia and 31000, 30000 and 25000 tone shrimps are exported to Japan respectively in 2015.

Peru,Norway and Chile produce much fish by N, P caused by counter current of nutrient rich deep sea water with nutrient poor shallow sea water.

Fish production is proportional to CO2 fixed by CO2 assimilation at sea, the country having high fish production is the country which have done high CO2 fixing. 10 times of CO2 of fish production are fixed by plankton CO2 assimilation.

China produced 79.38 million tone fish in 2016. This means that China fixed 8 billion tone CO2 by plankton CO2 assimilation. This is huge amount. This is 1/12 of 100 billion tone CO2 produced at China. China is biggest CO2 producing country.

This data indicates that plankton CO2 assimilation is playing significant role for the fixing of CO2 and protection of global warming.

Decrease of 12 million tone fish at Japan means decrease of 120 million tone CO2 fixing. If Japan stop elimination of 3 million tone N and P, Japan can fix 46 million tone CO2 and can produce 12 million tone fish decrease of half million tone fish at Set inland sea means decrease of 5 million tone CO2 fixing.

Japan is most CO2 increasing country, because country is narrow and cannot fix produced CO2 at land(11). Therefore, Japan must fix CO2 by promotion of CO2 assimilation at sea. Japan is producing 10 %CO2 of total COproduction for the elimination of NOx and drainage treatment. Japan must diminish CO2 emission by stopping NOx elimination, and promote CO2 assimilation and fish production.

If governments think CO2 diminish is most important subject, they should consider sea as firm of fish, firm to fix CO2. They should increase N,P concentration of sea by releasing NOx and drainage N,P as it is.

6.      Summary

NOx is a gift from nature. We should not against nature.We should use NOx as it is. NOx is hated as pollution gas causing illness. Many governments set up very strict law to eliminate all NOx in burned gas and forced to eliminate NOx using ammonia.When NOx is released at no person district such as sea side, NOx do not give any harm. One molecule of NOx can fix 25 molecules of CO2 and can protect global warming. I wish to insist that NOx elimination should be stopped. Because toxicity of NOx is not so serious compared with significant merit of NOx. NOx is essential for the promotion of CO2 assimilation, for the production of foods, for the promotion of health and long life [39-45]. for the protection of global warming.



CO2Billion tone

NOx

plankton

Grain

Fish GrassTree CO2 increase

World

300

12

40

33

2

225

China

100

4

5.5

5.5

0.794

78.6

0

India

24

1

2

2.9

0.1

19.1

0

USA

51

1

1.2

4.4

0.06

4 5.4

0

Russia

17

0.6

0.92

0.9

0.046

15.2

0

Japan

12

0.48

0.92

0.12

0.046

11

9

Germany

7.8

0.31

0.058

0.47

0.0029

7.3

0

Canada

5.8

0.23

0.055

0.66

0.0105

5.1

0

UK

4

0.16

0.018

0.2

0.0091

3.8

0.016

Italia

3.6

0.14

0.039

0.16

0.0024

3.4

0.003

France

3.3

0.13

0.013

0.67

0.0067

3.2

0

Table 1:Amount of CO2, NOx, plankton, Grain, Fish Grass Tree and CO2 increase of 10 counts.


 

Fish production (2016)

Million tone (2002)

CO2 emission (1997)

 

NOxemission

Million tone

Population billion

CO2 fixed by  plankton million tone

World

200

93.19

93.33

4400

100

76

2000

Top China

79.38

16.77

16.29

1064

50

13.5

794

2nd Indonesia

22.21

4.65

5.55

50

 

2.39

222

India

10.11

3.72

3.60

245

 

12.24

101

Vietnam

6.21

 

 

21

 

0.86

62

USA

6.05

4.65

5.41

517

 

3.10

60

Peru

4.92

8.38

7.87

 

 

0.28

49

Japan

4.64

4.65

5.88

125

2

1.27

46

Russia

4.61

3.72

4.66

176

 

1.43

46

Philippine

4.50

 

 

11

 

0.92

45

Norway

3.52

 

2.87

52

 

0.48

35

Bangladesh

3.68

 

 

 

 

1.62

37

Korea

3.33

6.1

58

 

 

0.4

33

Chile

3.19

4.65

5.87

8

 

0.17

32

Myanmar

2.95

 

 

 

 

0.53

30

Tai

2.59

 

 

28

 

0.63

26

Malaysia

2.00

 

 

26

 

0.28

20

Mexico

1.69

 

 

47

 

1.23

17

Egypt

1.51

 

 

23

 

0.94

15

Taiwan

1.30

 

 

 

 

0.27

13

Brazil

1.27

 

 

48

 

2.08

13

Spain

1.26

 

 

26

 

0.46

13

Canada

1.05

 

 

55

 

0.37

10

Nigeria

1.92

 

 

87

 

1.94

19

Iran

0.98

 

 

63

 

0.80

10

U kingdom

0.91

 

 

40

 

0.66

10

Argentine

0.81

 

 

19

 

0.44

8

France

0.71

 

 

32

 

0.67

7

Turkey

0.67

 

 

38

 

0.80

7

Pakistan

0.64

 

 

17

 

1.98

6

South Africa

0.57

 

 

42

 

0.33

6

Netherland

0.44

 

 

18

 

0.17

4

Italia

0.34

 

 

35

 

0.60

4

Germany

0.29

 

 

77

 

0.83

3

Australia

0.25

 

 

35

 

0.25

3

Table 2: Fish production, CO2 emission and NOx emission of the world.

1.       Ozaki Shoichiro (1993) Recycle of nitrogen and phosphorous for the increase of food production New Food Industry 10: 33-39.

2.       Ozaki Shoichiro (2016) Methods to protect global warming. Adv Tech Biol Med 4: 181.

3.       Ozaki Shoichiro (2016) Methods to protect global warming, Food production increase way. New Food Industry 8: 47-52.

4.       Ozaki Shoichiro (2016) Global warming can be protected by promotion of CO2 assimilation using NOx. Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting 4: 2.

5.       Ozaki Shoichiro (2016) Global warming can be protected by promotion of plankton CO2 assimilation. Journal of Marine Science: Research & Development 6: 6.

6.       Ozaki Shoichiro (2017) Method to protect global warming by promotion of CO2 assimilation and method to reactivate fish industry. New Food Industry 3: 61-70.

7.       Ozaki Shoichiro (2017) NOx is Best Compound to Reduce CO2. Eur J Exp Biol7:12.

8.       Ozaki Shoichiro (2017) Protection of global warming and burn out of fossil fuel by promotion of CO2 assimilation. Jof Marine Biology & Oceanography6:2.

9.       Ozaki Shoichiro (2017) Promotion of CO2 assimilation supposed by NOx is best way to protect global warming and food production. Artiv of Pet-EnvilronBiotechnol 2: 110.

10.    Ozaki Shoichiro (2017) Promotion of CO2 assimilation supported by NOx is best way to protect global warming. J Marine Biol Aquacult3: 2.

11.    Ozaki Shoichiro (2017) Stopping of NOx elimination is easy way to reduce CO2 and protect global warming JEnviron Sci Public Health 1: 24-34.

12.    Ozaki Shoichiro (2017) Effective uses of NOxand drainage are clever way to protect global warming and to increase fish production. Oceanography 6 Fisheries4: 4.

13.    Falkowski PG (1994) "The role of phytoplankton photosynthesis in global biogeochemical cycles" (PDF). Photosyntheis Research39: 235-258.

14.    Falkowski PG, Ziemann D, Kolber Z, Bienfang PK (1991) Nutrient pumping and phytoplankton response in a subtropical mesoscale eddy. Nature 352: 52-58.

15.    Falkowski PG, Wilson C (1992) Phytoplankton productivity in the North Pacific Ocean since 1900 and implications for absorption of anthropogenic CO2. Nature 358: 741-743.

16.    Chisholm SW, Falkowski PG, Cullen JJ (2001) "Dis-crediting ocean fertilization". Science5541: 309-310.

17.    Aumont O, Bopp L (2006) "Globalizing results from ocean insituiron fertilization studies". Global Biogeochemical Cycles20: 2.

18.    How much do oceans add toward oxygen?Earth & Sky.

19.    John R (2004) "Source of Half Earth's Oxygen Gets Little Credit". NationalGeographic News.

20.    Tappan, Helen (1968) "Primary production, isotopes, extinctions and the atmosphere". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology4: 187-210.

21.    Wang G, Wang X, Liu X, Li Q (2012) Diversity and biogeochemical function of planktonic fungi in the ocean. In: C. Raghu Kumar (ed.), Biology of marine fungi. Springer Berlin Heidelberg 53: 71-88.

22.    Omori M, Ikeda T (1984) Methods in Marine Zooplankton Ecology. Malabar, USA: Krieger PublishingCompany 2: 562.

23.    "NASA Satellite Detects Red Glow to Map Global Ocean Plant Health"  (2009) NASA.

24.    "Satellite Sees Ocean Plants Increase, Coasts Greening" (2005) NASA.

25.    Richtel M(2007) "Recruiting Plankton to Fight Global Warming". New York Times.

26.    Robert CJ, Lovelock JE, Andreae MO, Warren SG (1987) "Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate". Nature326: 655-561.

27.    Quinn PK, Bates TS (2011) "The case against climate regulation via oceanic phytoplankton sulphur emissions". Nature 480: 51-56.

28.    Calbet A (2008) "The trophic roles of micro zooplankton in marine systems". ICES Journal of Marine Science65: 325-331.

29.    Arrigo, Kevin R (2005) "Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles". Nature437: 349-355.

30.    Fanning KA (1989) "Influence of atmospheric pollution on nutrient limitation in the ocean". Nature 339: 460-463.

31.    Sterner RW, Elser JJ (2002) EcologicalStoichiometry:The Biology of Elements from Molecules to the Biosphere. Princeton University Press: 464.

32.    Klausmeier CA, Litchman E, Levin SA (2004) "Phytoplankton growth and stoichiometry under multiple nutrient limitation". Limnology and Oceanography49: 1463-1470.

33.    Klausmeier CA, Litchman E, Daufresne T, Levin SA (2004) "Optimal nitrogen-to-phosphorus stoichiometry of phytoplankton". Nature429: 171-174.

34.    Boyce DG, Lewis MR, Worm B(2010) "Global phytoplankton decline over the past century". Nature466: 591-596.

35.    Schiermeier Q (2010) "Ocean greenery under warming stress". Nature.

36.    Mackas DL (2011) "Does blending of chlorophyll data bias temporal trend?". Nature472: E4-E5.

37.    Rykaczewski RR, Dunne JP (2011) "A measured look at ocean chlorophyll trends". Nature472: E5-E6.

38.    McQuatters-Gollop A, Reid PC, Edwards M, Burkill PH, Castellani C, Batten, et al. (2011) "Is there a decline in marine phytoplankton?". Nature472: E6-E7.

39.    ShoichiroO (2015) Sulfo disaccharides co-working with Klotho. Studies on structure, structure activity relation and function World J of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences4: 152-175.

40.    ShoichiroO (2016) Secret of Anti-aging: Anti-Aging Food Containing Glucosamine,Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin.Jacobs Journal of Physiology2:013.

41.    ShoichiroO (2015) Glucosamine Derivatives. Sulfo disaccharides co-working with Klotho. Nutrition and Food Science 5: 416.

42.    Shoichiro O (2015) Synthesis of Anti-Aging Reagent: Sulfo Disaccharide Co-working with Anti- Aging Gene. Archives of Medicine 6: 17.

43.    Shoichiro O (2015) Nutrition for Good Health,Anti-aging and Long Life, Hyaluronic Acid. Glucosamine and Chondroitin. Maternal and Pediatric Nutrition Journal1:E102.

44.    Shoichiro O (2016) Food containing hyaluronic acid and chondroichin is essential for anti-aging. International Journal of aging&ClinicalResearch1:101.

45.    ShoichiroO (2016) Toward Anti-Aging and Long Life. Jakobs Journal of Physiology 2: 13-17.


Citation: Ozaki S (2017) NOx Elimination and Drainage NP Elimination Should Be Stopped for The Production of Fish and for The Protection of Global Warming. J Fish Aqua Dev: JFAD-125.