Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
*Corresponding author: Ahmed RG, Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. Tel: +201091471828; Email: email@example.com
Received Date: 10 January, 2018; Accepted Date: 12, January, 2018; Published Date: 18 January, 2018
Thyroid Hormones (THs) display key activities during the ordinary development [1-53] through genomic and non-genomic actions . Extra nuclear or non-genomic actions of THs have been found in the cellular organelles, cytoplasm and plasma membrane [51,54,55]. Also, these actions have comprised the activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (ERK/MAPK) and Protein Kinases (PKA & PKC), modulation of glucose transport and sodium, potassium and calcium ions, and regulation of Phospholipases (PLC & PLD) [56,57]. Specifically, Thyroxine (T4) can bind to a membrane integrin receptor (αVβ3) inducing MAPK activity [58,59]. In addition, THs regulate the behaviors of interferon-γ (IFN-γ)  and growth factors, such as vascular growth factors [61, 62], transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) , and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), by non-genomic mechanisms [49,64,65]. T4 can increase the levels of TGF-β and EGF-induced the expression of c-fosand activation of ERK1/2 in HeLa cells . Thus, non-genomic mechanisms of TH are not regularly stimulatory because of TH can inhibit the actions of TGF-β and stimulate the autocrine/paracrine effects of EGF .
On the other hand, THs can induce the action of insulin growth factor I (IGF-I) on account of integrin αVβ3 has a cell surface receptor for THs and co receptor for IGF-I [49,66]. IGF-I supports the cellular growth, regulates the glucose homeostasis, and stimulates the level of insulin sensitivity in the biological tissues through paracrine, autocrine, and endocrine actions [40, 50]. More importantly, in the smooth muscle cells, the action of IGF-I may be mediated by the receptors of integrinαVβ3 [67,68,49]. Thus, the nature of integrin as a structural and functional may be very important to the actions of the muscles [69-72]. Recently, my group reported that T4 (subnanomolar free hormone concentration) prevents IGF-I stimulation of glucose uptake and cellular proliferation. This action may be mediated by the crosstalk between the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and integrin αVβ3.
Thus, these data propose that the non-genomic actionof THscan show a significant role during the regular development. Additional examinations are desired to distinguish the crosstalk between THs and their non-genomic actions during the development. In addition, several studies are needed to explore the interactions between the T4 and IGF-I on the actions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway in the glucose uptake and cell proliferation.
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38. Ahmed OM, Ahmed RG,El-Gareib AW, El-Bakry AM, Abd El-Tawab SM(2012) Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-The developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.Int J Dev Neurosci 30: 517-537.
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68. Fujita M, Takada YK, Takada Y(2013) Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) signalling requires αVβ3-IGF1-IGF type 1 receptor (IGF1R) ternary complex formation in anchorage independence, and the complex does not require IGF1R and Src activation. J BiolChem 288: 3059-3069.
Citation: Ahmed RG (2018) Non-Genomic Actions of Thyroid Hormones During Development. App ClinPharmacolToxicol: ACPT-108. DOI: 10.29011/ACPT-109. 100008