Applied Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology (ISSN: 2577-0225)

Article / editorial

"Non-Genomic Actions of Thyroid Hormones During Development"

Ahmed RG

Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

*Corresponding author: Ahmed RG, Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. Tel: +201091471828; Email: ahmedragab08@gmail.com

Received Date: 10 January, 2018; Accepted Date: 12, January, 2018; Published Date: 18 January, 2018


Editorial

Thyroid Hormones (THs) display key activities during the ordinary development [1-53] through genomic and non-genomic actions [51]. Extra nuclear or non-genomic actions of THs have been found in the cellular organelles, cytoplasm and plasma membrane [51,54,55]. Also, these actions have comprised the activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (ERK/MAPK) and Protein Kinases (PKA & PKC), modulation of glucose transport and sodium, potassium and calcium ions, and regulation of Phospholipases (PLC & PLD) [56,57]. Specifically, Thyroxine (T4) can bind to a membrane integrin receptor (αVβ3) inducing MAPK activity [58,59]. In addition, THs regulate the behaviors of interferon-γ (IFN) [60] and growth factors, such as vascular growth factors [61, 62], transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) [63], and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), by non-genomic mechanisms [49,64,65]. T4 can increase the levels of TGF-β and EGF-induced the expression of c-fosand activation of ERK1/2 in HeLa cells [63]. Thus, non-genomic mechanisms of TH are not regularly stimulatory because of TH can inhibit the actions of TGF-β and stimulate the autocrine/paracrine effects of EGF [49].

On the other hand, THs can induce the action of insulin growth factor I (IGF-I) on account of integrin αVβ3 has a cell surface receptor for THs and co receptor for IGF-I [49,66]. IGF-I supports the cellular growth, regulates the glucose homeostasis, and stimulates the level of insulin sensitivity in the biological tissues through paracrine, autocrine, and endocrine actions [40, 50]. More importantly, in the smooth muscle cells, the action of IGF-I may be mediated by the receptors of integrinαVβ3 [67,68,49]. Thus, the nature of integrin as a structural and functional may be very important to the actions of the muscles [69-72]. Recently, my group reported that T4 (subnanomolar free hormone concentration) prevents IGF-I stimulation of glucose uptake and cellular proliferation[49]. This action may be mediated by the crosstalk between the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and integrin αVβ3[68].

Thus, these data propose that the non-genomic actionof THscan show a significant role during the regular development. Additional examinations are desired to distinguish the crosstalk between THs and their non-genomic actions during the development. In addition, several studies are needed to explore the interactions between the T4 and IGF-I on the actions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway in the glucose uptake and cell proliferation.



1.       El-bakry AM, El-Ghareeb AW,Ahmed RG(2010) Comparative study of the effects of experimentally-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in some brain regions in albino rats.Int JDevNeurosci 28: 371-389.

2.       Ahmed RG(2011) Perinatal 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters developmental neuroendocrine system. Food Chem Toxicology 49: 1276-1284.

3.       Ahmed RG (2012a) Maternal-newborn thyroid dysfunction. In RG Ahmed(Ed)The Developmental Neuroendocrinology. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co KG.Germany.Pg. no: 1-369.

4.       Ahmed RG(2012b) Maternal-fetal thyroid interactions.Chapter 5. In Dr. NK Agrawal (Ed) Thyroid Hormone. ISBN: 978-953-51-0678-4, Tech Open Access Publisher, London, UK. Pg. no: 125-156.

5.       Ahmed RG(2013) Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction. J Endocrinol 219: 205-215.

6.       Ahmed RG (2014)Editorial: Do PCBs modify the thyroid-adipokine axis during development? Annals Thyroid Res 1: 11-12.

7.       Ahmed RG (2015a) Hypothyroidism and brain development. In advances in hypothyroidism treatment. Avid Science Borsigstr. Berlin, Germany. Avid Science Publications level 6, Melange Towers, Wing a, Hitec City, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Pg no: 1-40.

8.       Ahmed RG (2015b) Hypothyroidism and brain developmental players. Thyroid Research J 8: 1-12.

9.       Ahmed RG (2015c) Editorials and Commentary: Maternofetal thyroid action and brain development. J. of Advances in Biology 7: 1207-1213.

10.    Ahmed RG (2015d) Developmental adipokines and maternal obesity interactions. J of Advances in Biology 7: 1189-1206.

11.    Ahmed RG (2016a)Gestational dexamethasone alters fetal neuroendocrine axis. Toxicology Letters 258: 46-54.

12.    Ahmed RG (2016b) Neonatal polychlorinated biphenyls-induced endocrine dysfunction. Ann. Thyroid Res 2: 34-35.

13.    Ahmed RG (2016c) Maternal iodine deficiency and brain disorders. Endocrinol MetabSyndr 5: 223.

14.    Ahmed RG (2016d) Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction. Food Chem Toxicology 95: 168-174.

15.    Ahmed RG (2017a) Developmental thyroid diseases and GABAergic dysfunction. EC Neurology 8.1: 02-04.

16.    Ahmed RG (2017b) Hyperthyroidism and developmental dysfunction. Arch Med 9: 4.

17.    Ahmed RG (2017c) Anti-thyroid drugs may be at higher risk for perinatal thyroid disease. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 4.4: 140-142.

18.    Ahmed RG (2017d) Perinatal hypothyroidism and cytoskeleton dysfunction. Endocrinol MetabSyndr 6: 271.

19.    Ahmed RG (2017e) Developmental thyroid diseases and monoaminergic dysfunction. Advances in Applied Science Research 8: 01-10.

20.    Ahmed RG (2017f) Hypothyroidism and brain development. JAnim Res Nutr 2: 13.

21.    Ahmed RG (2017g) Antiepileptic drugs and developmental neuroendocrine dysfunction: Every why has A Wherefore. Arch Med 9: 2.

22.    Ahmed RG (2017h) Gestational prooxidant-antioxidant imbalance may be at higher risk for postpartum thyroid disease. EndocrinolMetabSyndr 6: 279.

23.    Ahmed RG (2017i) Synergistic actions of thyroid-adipokines axis during development.Endocrinol MetabSyndr 6: 280.

24.    Ahmed RG (2017j) Thyroid-insulin dysfunction during development. International Journal of Research Studies in Zoology 3: 73-75.

25.    Ahmed RG (2017k) Developmental thyroid diseases and cholinergic imbalance. International Journal of Research Studies in Zoology 3: 70-72.

26.    Ahmed RG (2017l) Thyroid diseases and developmental adenosinergic imbalance. Int J Clin Endocrinol 1: 053-055.

27.    Ahmed RG (2017m) Maternal anticancer drugs and fetal neuroendocrine dysfunction in experimental animals. EndocrinolMetabSyndr 6: 281.

28.    Ahmed RG (2017n) Letter: Gestational dexamethasone may be at higher risk for thyroid disease developing peripartum. Open Journal of Biomedical& Life Sciences (Ojbili) 3: 01-06.

29.    Ahmed RG (2017o) Deiodinases and developmental hypothyroidism. EC Nutrition 11: 183-185.

30.    Ahmed RG (2017p) Maternofetal thyroid hormones and risk of diabetes. Int J of Res Studies in Medical and Health Sciences 2: 18-21.

31.    Ahmed RG (2017r) Association between hypothyroidism and renal dysfunctions. International Journal of Research Studies in Medical and Health Sciences 2: 1-4.

32.    Ahmed RG (2017s) Maternal hypothyroidism and lung dysfunction. International Journal of Research Studies in Medical and Health Sciences 2: 8-11.

       33.    Ahmed RG (2017t) Endocrine disruptors; possible mechanisms for inducing developmental disorders. International journal of basic science in medicine (IJBSM).

       34.    Ahmed RG (2017u) Maternal thyroid hormones trajectories and neonatal behavioral disorders. ARC Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology 3: 18-21.

       35.    Ahmed RG 2018. Maternal hypothyroidism and neonatal testicular dysfunction. International Journal of Research Studies in Medical and Health Sciences 3: 8-12.

       36.    Ahmed OM, El-Gareib AW, El-bakry AM, Abd El-Tawab SM,Ahmed RG (2008) Thyroid hormones states and brain development interactions. Int J Dev Neurosci26: 147-209.

     37.    Ahmed OM, Abd El-Tawab SM, Ahmed RG (2010) Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: I- The development of the thyroid hormones-neurotransmitters and adenosinergic system interactions. IntJ Dev Neurosci 28: 437-454.

       38.    Ahmed OM, Ahmed RG,El-Gareib AW, El-Bakry AM, Abd El-Tawab SM(2012) Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-The developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.Int J Dev Neurosci 30: 517-537.

      39.    Ahmed RG,Incerpi S, Ahmed F, Gaber A (2013a) The developmental and physiological interactions between free radicals and antioxidant: Effect of environmental pollutants. J of Natural Sci Res3: 74-110.    

     40.    Ahmed RG,Davis PJ, Davis FB, De Vito P, Farias RN, et al. (2013b) Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones: from basic research to clinical applications. An update.Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic AgentCandelottis in Medicinal Chemistry 13: 46-59.

       41.    Ahmed RG,El-Gareib AW, Incerpi S (2014) Lactating PTU exposure: II- Alters thyroid-axis and prooxidant-antioxidant balance in neonatal cerebellum. Int Res J of Natural Sciences 2: 1-20.

       42.    Ahmed RG Abdel-Latif M, Mahdi E, El-Nesr K(2015a) Immune stimulation improves endocrine and neural fetal outcomes in a model of maternofetal thyrotoxicosis. IntImmunopharmacol 29: 714-721.

      43.    Ahmed RG,Abdel-Latif M, Ahmed F(2015b)Protective effects of GM-CSF in experimental neonatal hypothyroidism. International Immuno pharmacology 29: 538-543.

    44.    Ahmed RG,El-GareibAW, ShakerHM(2018) Gestational 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) exposure disrupts fetoplacental unit: Fetal thyroid-cytokines dysfunction. Life Sciences 192: 213-220.

       45.    Ahmed OM, Ahmed RG (2012) Hypothyroidism. In: A New Look at Hypothyroidism. Dr. D. Springer (Ed.), Tech Open Access Publisher, Rijeka, Croatia. Pg no: 1-20.

       46.    Ahmed RG,Incerpi S(2013) Gestational doxorubicin alters fetal thyroid-brain axis. Int J Devl Neuroscience 31: 96-104.

       47.    Van Herck SLJ, Geysens S, Bald E, Chwatko G, Delezie E, et al. (2013) Maternal transfer of methimazole and effects on thyroid hormone availability in embryonic tissues. Endocrinol 218: 105-115.

       48.    Ahmed RG El-Gareib AW(2014)Lactating PTU exposure: I- Alters thyroid-neural axis in neonatal cerebellum. Eur J of Biol and Medical Sci Res 2: 1-16.

       49.    Incerpi S, Hsieh M-T, Lin H-Y, Cheng G-Y, De Vito P,et al. (2014) Thyroid hormone inhibition in L6 myoblasts of IGF-I-mediated glucose uptake and proliferation: new roles for integrin αvβ3. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 307:C150-C161.

    50.    Candelotti E, De Vito P, Ahmed RG,Luly P, Davis PJ, et al. (2015) Thyroid hormones crosstalk with growth factors: Old facts and new hypotheses. ImmunEndoc&Metab Agents in Med Chem 15: 71-85.

        51.    De Vito P, Candelotti E, Ahmed RG,Luly P, Davis PJ, et al. (2015) Role of thyroid hormones in insulin resistance and diabetes. ImmunEndoc&Metab Agents in Med Chem 15: 86-93.

        52.    El-Ghareeb AA, El-Bakry AM, Ahmed RG,Gaber A(2016)Effects of zinc supplementation in neonatal hypothyroidism and cerebellar distortion induced by maternal carbimazole. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences 4: 1030-1040.

        53.    Ahmed RG,El-Gareib AW(2017)Maternal carbamazepine alters fetal neuroendocrine-cytokines axis. Toxicology 382: 59-66.

54.    De Vito P, Incerpi S, Pedersen JZ, Luly P, Davis FB, et al. (2011) Thyroid hormones as modulators of immune activities at the cellular level. Thyroid 21: 879-890.

55.    Incerpi S (2011) Editorial. Nongenomic effects of thyroid hormones in skeletal muscle and central nervous system: from zebrafish to man. ImmunEndocrMetabAgents Med Chem 11|: 150-151.

56.    Kavok NS, Krasilnikova OA, Babenko NA (2001) Thyroxine signal transduction in liver cells involves phospholipase C and phospholipase D activation genomic independent action of thyroid hormone. BMC Cell Biol 2: 5.

57.    Lin HY, Sun M, Tang HY, Lin C, Luidens MK,et al. (2009) L-Thyroxine vs. 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine and cell proliferation: activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Am JPhysiol Cell Physiol 296: C980-991.

58.    Bergh JJ, Lin HY, Lansing L, Mohamed SN, Davis FB, et al. (2005) Integrin αvβ3 contains a cell surface receptor site for thyroid hormone that is linked to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of angiogenesis. Endocrinol 146: 2864-2871.

59.    IncerpiS (2008) Abstract: at the 90th annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, San Francisco.

60.    Lin HY, Thacore HR, Davis FB, Davis PJ(1996) Potentiation by thyroxine of interferon-γ-induced antiviral state requires PKA and PKC activities. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 271: C1256-C1261.

61.    Davis FB, Mousa SA, O’Connor L, Mohamed S, Lin HY, et al. (2004) Proangiogenic action of thyroid hormone is fibroblast growth factor-dependent and is initiated at the cell surface. Circ Res 94: 1500-1506.

62.    Mousa SA, Davis FB, Mohamed S, Davis PJ, Feng X(2006) Pro-angiogenesis action of thyroid hormone and analogs in a three-dimensional in vitro microvascular endothelial sprouting model. IntAngiol 25: 407-413.

63.    Shih AI, Zhang S, Cao HJ, Tang HY, Davis FB, et al. (2004) Disparate effects of thyroid hormone on actions of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α are mediated by 3',5'-cyclicadenosine 5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase II. Endocrinology 145: 1708-1717.

64.    Cheng SY, Leonard JL, Davis PJ(2010) Molecular aspects of thyroid hormone actions. Endocr Rev 31: 139-170.

65.    Davis PJ, Davis FB, Mousa SA, Luidens MK, Lin, HY(2011) Membrane receptor for thyroid hormone: physiologic and pharmacologic implications. Annu Rev PharmacolToxicol 51, 98-115.

66.    Clemmons DR, Maile LA(2003) Integral membrane proteins that function coordinately with the insulin-like growth factor I receptor to regulate intracellular signaling. Endocrinology 144: 1664- 1670.

67.    Clemmons DR, Maile LA(2005) Interaction between insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and αVβ3 integrin linked signaling pathways: cellular responses to changes in multiple signaling inputs. MolEndocrinol 19: 1-11.

68.    Fujita M, Takada YK, Takada Y(2013) Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) signalling requires αVβ3-IGF1-IGF type 1 receptor (IGF1R) ternary complex formation in anchorage independence, and the complex does not require IGF1R and Src activation. J BiolChem 288: 3059-3069.

69.    Clemmons DR(2006) Involvement of insulin-like growth factor-1 in the control of glucose homeostasis. CurrOpinPharmacol 6: 620-625.

70.    Clemmons DR(2007) Modifying IGF1 activity: an approach to treat endocrine disorders, atherosclerosis and cancer. Nat Rev Drug Discov 6: 821-833.

71.    Clemmons DR(2009) Role of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle mass maintenance. Trends EndocrinolMetab 20: 349-356.

72.    Sinanan ACM, Machell JRA, Wynne-Hughes GT, Hunt NP, Lewis MP(2008)αVβ3and αVβ5 integrins and their role in muscle precursor cells adhesion. Biol Cell 100: 465-477.

 

Citation: Ahmed RG (2018) Non-Genomic Actions of Thyroid Hormones During Development. App ClinPharmacolToxicol: ACPT-108. DOI: 10.29011/ACPT-109. 100008

free instagram followers instagram takipçi hilesi