International Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders (ISSN: 2690-0149)

research article

The Effects of Exercise and Massage on Disuse Muscle Atrophy in Special Focus on Mechanical Stress

Kumiko Saitou1 and Katsuhiko Suzuki2*

1Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan

2Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan

*Corresponding author: Katsuhiko Suzuki, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan. Email:

Received Date: 28 January, 2019; Accepted Date: 13 March, 2019; Published Date: 21 March, 2019


Physical inactivity arises from a variety of health problems, including ageing, injury, and neuromuscular diseases, and can lead to numerous organismal disorders such as muscle atrophy. In addition to skeletal muscle atrophy, physical inactivity induces enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory factors, promoting inflammation in muscle tissues. Muscle atrophy and inflammation progress synergistically, aggravating physical inactivity. As a result, a vicious circle is formed by physical inactivity and muscle frailty. Physical exercise is recommended for prevention of muscle atrophy and inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the benefits of exercise toward muscle atrophy are poorly understood. Whereas massage is a widespread alternative intervention and is considered to provide the physiological, biomechanical, neurological and psychological benefits, there remain controversies in the effectiveness of massage. In this review, we describe the associations among physical exercise, disuse muscle atrophy and massage with respect to mechanical stress on muscle tissues.

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