Journal of Obesity and Nutritional Disorders (ISSN: 2577-2244)

Article / research article

"The Association between Sedentary Lifestyle and Adolescent Obesity in Korea"

Minhee Kim1, Kyoung-Soo Kim2*

1Department of Family Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

2Department of Family Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

*Corresponding author: Kyoung-Soo Kim, Department of Family Medicine, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea. Tel: +82-222582895; Fax: +82-222582907; Email: kskim@catholic.ac.kr; formyoath@gmail.com

Received Date: 24 September, 2019; Accepted Date: 14 October, 2019; Published Date: 18 October, 2019

Abstract

Background: Obesity is becoming more prevalent worldwide. Among the many obesity-related factors in adults, lifestyle is pivotal. Owing to a lack of information on obesity in adolescents, we examined the association between sedentary lifestyle and obesity in Korean adolescents.

Methods: Our analysis comprised 61,179 middle and high school students selected from the 2016 Youth Health Behavior Online Survey. Using survey data, sedentary times corresponding to leisure and studying were determined. Obesity was defined as a body mass index≥25 kg/m2, and obesity risk was calculated via logistic regression.

Results: The percentages of male and female students with obesity were 17.1% and 8.3%, respectively. Moderate or vigorous physical activity reduced the obesity rate in boys but not girls. In both, weekly sedentary times for leisure above the median predicted an increased risk of obesity (boys: odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.23; P <0.001; girls: odds ratio, 1.25, 95% confidence interval; 1.15-1.37; P <0.001).

Conclusions: A sedentary lifestyle in adolescents was associated with obesity. Our findings provide insight into the health behaviors of adolescents, which should aid the implementation of future youth obesity-management programs. Further study of the relationship between lifestyle and obesity is recommended.

Keywords

Adolescent obesity; Physical activity; Sedentary lifestyle

Abbreviations

BMI: Body-mass index; TV: Television; KYRBS: Korean Youth’s Risk Behavior Survey; ST: Sedentary Time

Introduction

In 1998, the World Health Organization recognized obesity as a treatment-requiring disease. Regardless, the prevalence of obesity has risen in both adults and children [1]. In Korean adolescents, it increased steadily from 8.2% in 2005 to 12.8% in 2016, with boys showing a steeper increase than girls [2]. In these studies, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg/m2. Obesity during childhood and adolescence is associated with unhealthy dietary habits (e.g., high-fat and high-calorie diets) and physical behaviors (e.g., a sedentary lifestyle and minimal physical activity) [3]. When continued, these habits and behaviors can cause adulthood obesity, with potential complications such as cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes [4]. Moreover, children with obesity struggle with psychosocial issues such as an inferiority complex, depression, and negative self-esteem [5].

Sedentary lifestyle refers to sitting or lying down while awake, where very little energy is consumed [6]. Unfortunately, it is becoming more common in advanced countries. In children and adolescents, sedentary behavior includes working or studying while sitting at a desk at school and watching Television (TV) or playing computer games during leisure time [7]. It can lead to obesity in this age group, particularly in those individuals who watch TV for extended periods, as well as other health problems, highlighting the need for early intervention. In adults, a sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for obesity, as well as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis [8-10]. Several studies have examined the association between sedentary lifestyle and exercise, metabolic diseases, and body weight in adults [10-12]. However, only a few studies have assessed the relationship between sedentary lifestyle and obesity in Korean adolescents. Accordingly, the objective of the present study was to determine the amount of time allocated the different sedentary activities and the association between sedentary lifestyle and obesity in Korean adolescents who participated in the 2016 Korean Youth’s Risk Behavior Survey (KYRBS).

Materials and Methods

Materials

The present study used raw data from the 12th KYRBS (2016) conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on 7th to 12th grade students (twelve to eighteen years old ages). The KYRBS is anonymous and self-reporting; its goals are to identify the health behaviors of Korean youths and to generate the baseline data for planning and assessing youth health promotion projects. The 12th KYRBS included 400 middle and 400 high schools and stratified the participants according to city/province, city size, regional group, school level (middle school, regular high school, and specialized high school), and school type (boys-only, girls-only, and coed) for proportional allocation. The stratified cluster sampling method was used for sample selection: in the first stage, the schools were systematically sampled by sorting the list of schools according to stratum; in the second stage, a single classroom in each grade of the schools sampled in the first stage was randomly sampled. The survey came up with 102 indices based on 117 questions in 15 categories, including smoking, drinking, physical activity, dietary habits, obesity and weight control, mental health, injury and safety awareness, oral health, personal hygiene, sexual behavior, atopy and asthma, internet addiction, and health equity.

Subjects

The 12th KYRBS targeted 67,975 students from 800 schools throughout Korea, among whom 65,528 from 798 schools were included in the present study (participation rate, 96.4%). After excluding 4,344 students who did not provide weight, height, and/or Sedentary Time (ST) information, the final number of students in our analysis was 61,179. In this study, total study group was divided into two groups by gender.

Variables

Using the definition of obesity by the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, subjects with a BMI <25 kg/m2 were classified as without obesity (normal weight), while those with a BMI≥25 kg/m2 were classified as with obesity. General characteristics included school level (middle or high school) and socioeconomic status (upper and upper-middle, middle, or low and lower-middle). Moderate physical activity was defined as states with increased heart rate above the normal level or caused shortness of breath were performed for at least 60 minutes, 5 or more days per week. Vigorous physical activity was defined as exercises such as jogging, soccer, basketball, taekwondo, hiking, and speed swimming were performed at least 20 minutes per day, 3 or more days per week. Health-related behaviors were categorized as smoking, drinking alcohol, and dietary habits. Drinking and smoking statuses were based on the number of days within the past 30 days on which the subject consumed one or more servings of alcohol or smoked at least one cigarette, respectively. Dietary habits were sub-categorized as eating breakfast at least 3 times a week, drinking soft drinks at least 3 times a week, and eating fast foods at least 3 times a week.

ST represented the average time (minutes) per day that the subject spent sitting on weekdays and weekends, either studying or at leisure. Hence, there were four ST categories: weekday/study, weekend/study, weekday/leisure, and weekend/leisure. ST for study included time spent studying at and after school, doing homework on the computer, and watching educational TV programs. ST for leisure included watching TV, playing video games, internet surfing, and chatting. The median ST was used to divide the subjects into the ‘less than median time’ and ‘above median time’ groups.

Statistical Analysis

Frequency analyses of the general characteristics and health behaviors of the subjects were performed, with the results presented as descriptive statistics. Distribution of the STs for study and leisure during weekdays and weekends are presented as mean and standard deviation, using Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance to evaluate the mean differences. For associations between ST and obesity, binominal logistic regression analysis was performed using variables that showed significant differences with respect to ST and obesity as adjustment variables. The significance level was set at 5%, and all analyses were performed by using SPSS version 20.0 software.

Results

The distributions of the general characteristics of the subjects are shown in (Table 1). The percentage of male students with obesity was 17.1%, and the percentage of female students with obesity was 8.3%. The percentages of male and female students performing moderate physical activities were 19.4% and 7.2%, respectively, while the percentages for vigorous physical activities were 50.6% and 25.7%, respectively. Male students who performed moderate or vigorous physical activities had shorter STs in all four categories (weekday/study, weekend/study, weekday/leisure, and weekend/leisure) than those who did not perform moderate or vigorous physical activities (Table 2). Male students with obesity had longer weekday/study and weekend/leisure STs than those without obesity. Female students who performed moderate physical activities had shorter STs in all four categories, whereas those who performed vigorous physical activities had shorter STs in two categories only (weekday/study and weekend/study) (Table 3). Female students with obesity had longer STs than those without obesity in all categories excepting weekday/study.

The distribution of general characteristics and health behaviors between normal-weight students and students with obesity is shown in (Table 4). Moderate and vigorous physical activity significantly shifted the distribution toward normal weight in male students but not female students. One of health-related behaviors (drinking alcohol) increased the obesity rate in both male and female students, two dietary habits (eating fast foods, drinking soft drinks) decreased the obesity rate, and others (smoking and eating breakfast) had no effect.

The association between ST and obesity in male students was determined after adjusting for school level, socioeconomic status, physical activities, drinking soft drinks, and eating fast foods. STs for leisure above the median on weekdays and weekends and for the entire week correlated significantly with an increased risk of obesity; the odds ratios (95% confidential intervals) were 1.11 (1.04-1.18) (P = 0.001), 1.22 (1.15-1.30) (P <0.001), and 1.16 (1.09-1.23) (P <0.001), respectively (Table 5). The association between ST and obesity in female students was determined after adjusting for school level, socioeconomic status, drinking soft drinks, and eating fast foods. STs for leisure above the median on weekdays and weekends and for the entire week correlated significantly with an increased risk of obesity; the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.14 (1.04-1.24) (P = 0.005), 1.26 (1.16-1.37) (P <0.001), and 1.25 (1.15-1.37) (P <0.001), respectively (Table 6).

Discussion

The present study investigated the association between sedentary lifestyles and obesity in adolescents participating in the 12th KYRBS, which was conducted in 2016. Obesity in children and adolescents can be defined as a BMI above the 95th percentile based on relative body weight versus standard body weight [13]. However, in the Asian Pacific region, obesity in adolescents is commonly defined as a BMI≥25 kg/m2, independent of percentile; thus, we used this definition in our study. Obesity was more prevalent in male students than female students (2-fold increase) and in high school students than middle school students; these results are similar to those of a previous study [14]. They can be explained by the pressure on women to lose weight owing to sociocultural influences (which have less impact on men) and the emphasis of high schools on college admission preparations rather than physical activity [15,16].

Skipping breakfast has been linked to an increased risk of obesity [16,17]. In our study, however, skipping breakfast did not significantly correlate with obesity. Hence, additional studies assessing this relationship are needed. Surprisingly, we found that students with obesity ate fast food less often that did those without obesity. This finding contradicts the expected association between obesity and fast food (e.g., ramen and hamburgers) consumption. Others reported that underweight or normal-weight people ate fast foods more frequently, but ate lesser total amounts of fast foods, than did people with obesity, leaving room for controversy [18,19]. Countries throughout the world recommend limited intake of high-fat fast foods (e.g., hamburgers and pizza), as they can cause obesity in adolescents [20]. Because the group with a lower intake of fast foods had a higher obesity rate in the present study, future studies should consider the quality of the fat consumed and other relevant variables.

In our study, the obesity rate was lower in male students who performed moderate and vigorous physical activities than in those who did not. This finding is consistent with previous reports indicating that proper exercise prevents obesity [19,20]. On the other hand, the obesity rate was similar in female students who or did not perform moderate or vigorous physical activities. However, caution should be taken in interpreting these results: it is possible that the students with obesity were not particularly physically active in the past, while those without obesity were highly physically active in the past [21]. The groups without moderate or vigorous physical activities had longer study and leisure STs than those with physical activities. Sedentary behavior limits participation in physical activities and consequently reduces energy consumption. Hence, physical activity can expend the energy required for weight control [22-24]. The energy consumption ranges for sedentary versus active behaviors differ. Sedentary behaviors, such as watching TV, using a computer, or sitting in a car, generally consume 1.0-1.5 METs, whereas moderate-to-strenuous physical activities, such as bicycling, swimming, walking, and running consume 3-8 METs [24]. Moreover, in some sedentary behaviors (e.g., watching TV), the hands are free, allowing the person to consume harmful snacks or high-calorie beverages, which can further increase the risk of obesity [25,26].

The present study examined the distribution of STs according to the type of sedentary activity and determined the obesity rates in groups with STs above the median to identify the effects of a sedentary lifestyle on obesity. As confirmed by previous studies, confounding factors such as energy intake and physical activity affect the relationship between sedentary lifestyle and BMI [23,27]. Although our analysis included some confounders, dietary factors and physical activities could not be assessed accurately owing to the limits of the self-reported questionnaire. In study, STs for leisure above the median predicted a higher risk of obesity than STs for study above the median. As an explanation, previous studies have shown that leisure activities such as watching TV consume less energy than do study activities such as writing or reading [27,28]. Australian adolescents spend most of their weekday and weekend leisure time watching TV, whereas only about 35% of Korean students spend 2 or more hours watching TV [29,30]. Although the percentage of students watching TV was not calculated in our study, we believe that watching TV accounts for a large proportion of ST.

Weekday/study STs were not associated with obesity in our study, whereas weekend/study STs inversely correlated with obesity. In additional analyses, the correlation between weekday/study ST and weekday/leisure ST was -0.074, whereas the correlation between weekend/study and weekend/leisure was -0.173. These numbers indicate that study times increased and leisure times decreased on weekends. This tendency might influence the relationship between food intake and energy consumption. This study had some limitations. First, because it was a cross-sectional study, causal relationships could not be clearly identified. Second, the questionnaire used in the KYRBS did not differentiate between an active sedentary lifestyle (e.g., playing virtual reality games) and a non-active sedentary lifestyle (e.g., watching videos). Third, it evaluated the frequency of food intake but not the actual amount of food consumed. Fourth, because it included data from only a single questionnaire, comparisons between our results and those of others (which perhaps used different measurement tools for physical activity) are difficult [8,31].

Conclusions

A sedentary lifestyle in adolescents was associated with obesity in this study. By providing insight into the health behaviors of adolescents, our findings should aid the implementation of future obesity-management programs for adolescents. Because adolescent lifestyle habits are often carried over into adulthood, our findings may also help lower the risk of obesity in adults. Further investigation of the relationship between sedentary lifestyle and obesity in adolescents is recommended.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the support provided by the study participants. We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.co.kr) for English language editing.

Conflict of Interest

The Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


n (%)

Total

Male students

Female students

Body-mass Index (kg/m2)

< 25

26150 (82.9)

27177 (91.7)

25

5387 (17.1)

2465 (8.3)

School Type

Middle school

15593 (49.4)

14381 (48.5)

High school

15944 (50.6)

15261 (51.5)

Socio-economic Status

Low-Lower middle

4866 (15.4)

4459 (15.0)

Middle

14277 (45.3)

14989 (50.6)

Upper middle-upper

12394 (39.3)

10194 (34.4)

Moderate Physical Activity (days/week)

0-4

25413 (80.6)

27497 (92.8)

7-May

6124 (19.4)

2145 (7.2)

High-intensity Physical Activity (days/week)

0-2

15580 (49.4)

22029 (74.3)

7-Mar

15957 (50.6)

7613 (25.7)

Experience of smoking

No

28681 (90.9)

28935 (97.6)

Yes

2856 (9.1)

707 (2.4)

Experience of drinking

No

26437 (83.8)

26102 (88.1)

Yes

5100 (16.2)

3540 (11.9)

Eating Breakfast (more than 3 times/week)

No

8646 (27.4)

8577 (28.9)

Yes

22891 (72.6)

21065 (71.1)

Drinking Soft drinks (more than 3 times/week)

No

21383 (67.8)

23409 (79.0)

Yes

10154 (32.2)

6233 (21.0)

Eating Fast food (more than 3 times/week)

No

26086 (82.7)

25235 (85.1)

Yes

5451 (17.3)

4407 (14.9)


Table 1: Basic characteristics of study population.

Variables

ST for study

ST for leisure

on weekdays

on weekend

on weekdays

on weekend

Mean±S.E

P

Mean±S.E

P

Mean±S.E

P

Mean±S.E

P

Body-mass Index (kg/m2)

< 25

396.2±1.8

<0.001

195.0±1.3

0.083

136.7±0.8

0.289

249.2±2.7

<0.001

 

25

416.3±4.0

 

200.7±3.0

 

138.7±1.8

 

267.9±2.7

School Type

Middle

329.4±2.1

<0.001

149.2±1.3

<0.001

146.3±1.1

<0.001

260.2±1.6

<0.001

 

High

468.3±2.4

 

241.7±1.9

 

128.0±1.0

 

244.8±1.5

Socio-economic Status

Low-Lower middle

385.7±4.1

<0.001

152.0±2.8

<0.001

150.7±2.0

<0.001

285.9±3.1

<0.001

 

 

Middle

397.9±2.4

 

183.4±1.7

 

137.3±1.0

 

256.5±1.6

Upper middle-upper

407.1±2.6

 

227.7±2.0

 

131.5±1.1

 

234.6±1.6

Moderate Physical Activity (days/week)

0-4

408.1±1.8

<0.001

201.9±1.4

<0.001

138.1±0.8

0.003

255.0±1.2

<0.001

 

7-May

363.3±3.5

 

171.4±2.5

 

132.7±1.7

 

241.8±2.4

High-intensity Physical Activity (days/week)

0-2

415.3±2.4

<0.001

204.0±1.8

<0.001

139.7±1.0

<0.001

260.9±1.6

<0.001

7-Mar

384.4±2.2

 

188.1±1.6

 

134.5±1.0

 

244.2±1.5

 

Experience of smoking

No

403.7±1.7

<0.001

200.1±1.3

<0.001

135.8±0.7

<0.001

252.5±1.1

0.816

Yes

358.7±5.5

 

155.1±3.8

 

150.0±2.6

 

251.6±3.8

 

Experience of drinking

No

399.1±1.8

0.482

198.8±1.3

<0.001

135.4±0.8

<0.001

250.8±1.2

0.001

Yes

402.3±4.1

 

181.2±3.0

 

145.7±1.9

 

260.8±2.8

 

Eating Breakfast (more than 3 times/week)

No

363.7±3.1

<0.001

164.7±2.1

<0.001

148.0±1.4

<0.001

265.2±2.2

<0.001

Yes

413.2±1.9

 

207.8±1.4

 

132.9±0.8

 

247.6±1.2

 

Drinking Soft drinks (more than 3 times/week)

No

411.6±2.0

<0.001

204.1±1.5

<0.001

128.6±0.8

<0.001

243.2±1.3

<0.001

Yes

374.4±2.9

 

179.0±2.0

 

154.9±1.4

 

271.9±2.0

 

Eating Fast food (more than 3 times/week)

No

402.9±1.8

<0.001

196.7±1.3

0.178

123.4±0.8

<0.001

249.1±1.2

<0.001

Yes

384.1±4.0

 

192.5±2.9

 

155.3±1.9

 

268.7±2.7

 

Abbreviations: SE; Standard error


Table 2: Distribution of Sedentary Time (ST) for study and for leisure in male students.

Variables

ST for study

ST for leisure

on weekdays

on weekend

on weekdays

on weekend

Mean±S.E

P

Mean±S.E

P

Mean±S.E

P

Mean±S.E

P

Body-mass Index (kg/m2)

< 25

514.2±1.6

0.281

249.4±1.3

0.031

146.1±0.7

0.039

267.3±1.2

<0.001

25

520.4±5.5

 

239.2±4.5

 

151.2±2.4

 

294.2±4.3

 

School Type

Middle

434.9±2.1

<0.001

192.8±1.5

<0.001

159.4±1.0

<0.001

282.9±1.7

<0.001

High

590.0±2.2

 

301.0±2.0

 

134.5±0.9

 

257.0±1.5

 

Socio-economic Status

Low-Lower middle

497.5±4.1

<0.001

201.2±3.1

<0.001

158.2±1.9

<0.001

296.6±3.2

<0.001

Middle

513.4±2.2

 

234.6±1.7

 

148.3±1.0

 

274.3±1.6

 

Upper middle-upper

524.3±2.7

 

289.7±2.3

 

138.9±1.1

 

250.7±1.9

 

Moderate Physical Activity (days/week)

0-4

519.4±1.6

<0.001

251.8±1.3

<0.001

147.2±0.7

<0.001

270.7±1.2

<0.001

7-May

455.6±5.5

 

206.2±4.4

 

138.3±2.5

 

254.9±4.2

 

High-intensity Physical Activity (days/week)

0-2

527.1±1.8

<0.001

256.9±1.5

<0.001

146.1±0.8

0.276

270.5±1.3

0.188

7-Mar

478.9±3.0

 

224.2±2.4

 

147.8±1.4

 

267.0±2.3

 

Experience of smoking

No

517.0±1.6

<0.001

251.1±1.3

<0.001

145.7±0.7

<0.001

269.1±1.2

0.028

Yes

422.8±9.4

 

141.5±7.2

 

180.4±6.0

 

289.3±9.1

 

Experience of drinking

No

514.7±1.7

0.961

253.5±1.4

<0.001

145.0±0.7

<0.001

266.8±1.2

<0.001

Yes

515.0±4.6

 

211.5±3.7

 

158.3±2.2

 

290.1±3.6

 

Eating Breakfast (more than 3 times/week)

No

478.0±3.0

<0.001

209.7±2.3

<0.001

160.7±1.4

<0.001

287.4±2.3

<0.001

Yes

529.7±1.8

 

264.3±1.6

 

140.8±0.8

 

190.3±1.3

 

Drinking Soft drinks (more than 3 times/week)

No

524.8±1.8

<0.001

260.0±1.5

<0.001

140.9±0.7

<0.001

261.2±1.3

<0.001

Yes

477.2±3.4

 

205.4±2.6

 

167.8±1.6

 

300.9±2.7

 

Eating Fast food (more than 3 times/week)

No

517.5±1.7

<0.001

252.2±1.4

<0.001

142.5±0.7

<0.001

264.1±1.2

<0.001

Yes

499.0±4.1

 

227.5±3.3

 

169.8±2.0

 

300.9±3.2

 

Abbreviations: SE; Standard error


Table 3: Distribution of Sedentary Time (ST) for study and for leisure in female students.

 

Male students

Female students

n (%)

Normal weight

Obesity

P

Normal weight

Obesity

P

School Type

Middle school

13430 (86.1)

2163 (13.9)

<0.001

13505 (93.9)

876 (6.1)

<0.001

High school

12720 (79.8)

3224 (20.2)

 

13672 (89.6)

1589 (10.4)

Socio-economic Status

Low-Lower middle

3914 (80.4)

952 (19.6)

<0.001

3881 (87.0)

578 (13.0)

<0.001

Middle

11826 (82.8)

2451 (17.2)

 

13775 (91.9)

1214 (8.1)

Upper middle-upper

10410 (84.0)

1984 (16.0)

 

 9521 (93.4)

673 (6.6)

Moderate Physical Activity (days/week)

0-4

20940 (82.4)

4473 (17.6)

<0.001

25226 (91.7)

2271 (8.3)

0.207

7-May

5210 (85.1)

914 (14.9)

 

 1951 (91.0)

194 (9.0)

High-intensity Physical Activity (days/week)

0-2

12726 (81.7)

2854 (18.3)

<0.001

20227 (91.8)

1802 (8.2)

0.155

7-Mar

13424 (84.1)

2533 (15.9)

 

6950 (91.3)

663 (8.7)

Experience of smoking

No

23769 (82.9)

4912 (17.1)

0.514

26541 (91.7)

2394 (8.3)

0.095

Yes

2381 (83.4)

475 (16.6)

 

636 (90.0)

71 (10.0)

Experience of drinking

No

22009 (83.3)

4428 (16.7)

<0.001

24002 (92.0)

2100 (8.0)

<0.001

Yes

4141 (81.2)

959 (18.8)

 

 3175 (89.7)

365 (10.3)

Eating Breakfast (more than 3 times/week)

No

7134 (82.5)

1512 (17.5)

0.24

 7831 (91.3)

746 (8.7)

0.131

Yes

19016 (83.1)

3875 (16.9)

 

19346 (91.8)

1719 (8.2)

Drinking Soft drinks (more than 3 times/week)

No

17610 (82.4)

3773 (17.6)

<0.001

21410 (91.5)

1999 (8.5)

0.007

Yes

8540 (84.1)

1614 (15.9)

 

5767 (92.5)

466 (7.5)

Eating Fast food (more than 3 times/week)

No

21527 (82.5)

4559 (17.5)

<0.001

23088 (91.5)

2147 (8.5)

0.004

Yes

4623 (84.8)

828 (15.2)

 

4089 (92.8)

318 (7.2)


Table 4: General characteristics and health behaviors about obesity based on gender.


Variables2

Obesity

Crude OR

P

Adjusted1 OR

P

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

Sedentary time for study

Weekdays

< median (420.0)

1

1

median (420.0)

1.13 (1.07-1.20)

<0.001

1.02 (0.96-1.09)

0.051

Weekends

< median (120.0)

1

1

median (120.0)

0.98 (0.92-1.04)

0.443

0.92 (0.87-0.98)

0.009

Total week

< median (342.9)

1

1

median (342.9)

1.14 (1.07-1.20)

<0.001

1.02 (0.96-1.09)

0.468

Sedentary time for leisure

Weekdays

< median (120.0)

1

1

median (120.0)

1.08 (1.02-1.14)

0.014

1.11 (1.04-1.18)

0.001

Weekends

< median (210.0)

1

1

median (210.0)

1.20 (1.13-1.27)

<0.001

1.22 (1.15-1.30)

<0.001

Total week

< median (137.1)

1

1

median (137.1)

1.13 (1.06-1.20)

<0.001

1.16 (1.09-1.23)

<0.001

Abbreviations: OR; odd-ratios, CI; confidential interval; 1Adjusted for school type, socio-economic status, moderate physical activities, high-intensity physical activities, drinking soft drinks, eating fast food; 2Sedentary time median values were described by minutes per day


Table 5: Odds Ratios for Risk Factors of Obesity by Sedentary Behavior in Male students.

Variables2

Obesity

Crude OR

P

Adjusted1 OR

P

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

Sedentary time for study

Weekdays

1

1

median (540.0)

1.05 (0.96-1.14)

0.027

0.92 (0.85-1.06)

0.07

Weekends

1

1

median (180.0)

0.87 (0.80-0.95)

0.001

0.81 (0.74-0.88)

<0.001

Total week

1

1

median (454.3)

1.03 (0.95-1.12)

0.519

0.90 (0.82-0.98)

0.016

Sedentary time for leisure

Weekdays

1

1

median (120.0)

1.09 (1.00-1.19)

0.041

1.14 (1.04-1.24)

0.005

Weekends

1

1

median (240.0)

1.24 (1.15-1.35)

<0.001

1.26 (1.16-1.37)

<0.001

Total week

1

1

median (154.3)

1.21 (1.11-1.32)

<0.001

1.25 (1.15-1.37)

<0.001

Abbreviations: OR; odd-ratios, CI; confidential interval; 1Adjusted for school type, socio-economic status, moderate physical activities, high-intensity physical activities, drinking soft drinks, eating fast food; 2Sedentary time median values were described by minutes per day


Table 6: Odds Ratios for Risk Factors of Obesity by Sedentary Behavior in Female students.

References

  1. World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  2. Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (2016) The 2016 Youth Health Behavior Online Survey Sejong, Republic of Korea: Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.
  3. Rey-Lopez JP, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Biosca M, Moreno LA (2008) Sedentary behaviour and obesity development in children and adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18: 242-251.
  4. Hancox RJ, Milne BJ, Poulton R (2004) Association between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: a longitudinal birth cohort study. Lancet 364: 257-262.
  5. Dietz WH (1998) Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 101: 518-525.
  6. Sedentary Behaviour Research Network (2012) Letter to the editor: standardized use of the terms "sedentary" and "Sedentary Behaviours". Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 37: 540-542.
  7. Ng SW, Popkin BM (2012) Time use and physical activity: a shift away from movement across the globe. Obes Rev 13: 659-680.
  8. Must A, Tybor DJ (2005) Physical activity and sedentary behavior: a review of longitudinal studies of weight and adiposity in youth. Int J Obes (Lond) 29: S84-S96.
  9. Janssen I, Leblanc AG (2010) Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 7: 40.
  10. Katzmarzyk PT, Church TS, Craig CL, Bouchard C (2009) Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41: 998-1005.
  11. Biddle SJ, Garcia Bengoechea E, Wiesner G (2017) Sedentary behaviour and adiposity in youth: a systematic review of reviews and analysis of causality. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 14: 43.
  12. Laguna M, Ruiz JR, Gallardo C, Garcia-Pastor T, Lara MT, et. al. (2013) Obesity and physical activity patterns in children and adolescents. J Paediatr Child Health 49: 942-949.
  13. Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC) (2007) Pediatric Standard Growth Chart: Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC), The Korean Pediatric Society.
  14. Lee EM, Kim YJ (2017) Effect of Body Figure Discrepancy, Body Esteem, Interpersonal Stress, and Sociocultural Attitude toward Appearance on Social Pressure Related to Appearance Perceived by High School Students. Korean J Stress Res 25: 37-43.
  15. Jee YJ, Kim YH (2013) Factors Influencing Obesity among Adolescent: Analysis of 2011 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Korean J Obes 22: 39.
  16. Watanabe Y, Saito I, Henmi I, Yoshimura K, Maruyama K, et al. (2014) Skipping Breakfast is Correlated with Obesity. J Rural Med 9: 51-58.
  17. Jung MH, Yi JS, Jung HS (2016) Analysis of Factors Influencing the Obesity of Adolescents in South Korea. J Korean Soc Sch Health 29: 11-21.
  18. Chung WC, Cho YG, Kang JH, Park HA, Kim KW, et al. (2010) Lifestyle Habits Related to Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adolescents. Korean J Fam Med 31: 547.
  19. Katzmarzyk PT, Barreira TV, Broyles ST, Champagne CM, et al. (2015) Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Obesity in an International Sample of Children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 47: 2062-2069.
  20. Ekelund U, Hildebrand M, Collings PJ (2014) Physical activity, sedentary time and adiposity during the first two decades of life. Proc Nutr Soc 73: 319-329.
  21. Mutz DC, Roberts DF, Van Vuuren DP (1993) Reconsidering the Displacement Hypothesis:Television's Influence on Children's Time Use. Communication Research 20: 51-75.
  22. Xue H, Tian G, Duan R, Quan L, Zhao L, et al. (2016) Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China. Nutrients 8: 667.
  23. Steele RM, van Sluijs EM, Cassidy A, Griffin SJ, Ekelund U (2009) Targeting sedentary time or moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity: independent relations with adiposity in a population-based sample of 10-y-old British children. Am J Clin Nutr 90: 1185-1192.
  24. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, Irwin ML, Swartz AM, et al. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32: S498-S504.
  25. Williams DM, Raynor HA, Ciccolo JT (2008) A Review of TV Viewing and Its Association With Health Outcomes in Adults. Am J Lifestyle Med 2: 250-259.
  26. Costigan SA, Barnett L, Plotnikoff RC, Lubans DR (2013) The health indicators associated with screen-based sedentary behavior among adolescent girls: a systematic review. J Adolesc Health 52: 382-392.
  27. Hu FB (2003) Overweight and obesity in women: health risks and consequences. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 12: 163-172.
  28. Biddle SJ, Marshall SJ, Gorely T, Cameron N (2009) Temporal and environmental patterns of sedentary and active behaviors during adolescents' leisure time. Int J Behav Med 16: 278-286.
  29. Gorely T, Marshall SJ, Biddle SJ, Cameron N (2007) The prevalence of leisure time sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescent girls: an ecological momentary assessment approach. Int J Pediatr Obes 2: 227-234.
  30. Kang NR, Lee JS, Kang KS, Kwack YS (2016) Mental Health Problems in Child and Adolescent Obesity. J Korean Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 27: 119-129.
  31. Hardy LL, Bass SL, Booth ML (2007) Changes in sedentary behavior among adolescent girls: a 2.5-year prospective cohort study. J Adolesc Health 40: 158-165.

Citation: Kim M, Kim KS (2019) The Association between Sedentary Lifestyle and Adolescent Obesity in Korea. J Obes Nutr Disord 1: 137. DOI: 10.29011/2577-2244.100037

free instagram followers instagram takipçi hilesi